We thank the traditional Aboriginal owners of the sites, songs, stories, and pictures represented on this web site, not only for allowing us to use them, but also for enriching all our lives by sharing them with us.

We acknowledge and pay our respects to Aboriginal elders, past and present. We would like to thank the Yolngu elders and communities of Arnhem Land, the Buku-Larrnggay Mulka Centre, and Yirrkala Dhanbul Community Association, and of course our friends in Yirrkala for their help, hospitality, and for their permission to tell their stories. We especially thank Djapirri Mununggirritj for her friendship, guidance, and patience with our stupid Napaki questions!

We are also grateful to the other Indigenous groups who have welcomed us onto their land, and acknowledge the Bidjigal, Darkinjung, Darug, Eora, and Guringai people, on whose land this website was created, and whose stories and art initially motivated much of this work. We thank the organisations who have sponsored parts of this work either financially or in kind: CSIRO, Gove Amateur Astronomers, Macquarie University, Rio Tinto Alcan, and the Yothu Yindi Foundation.

We are indebted to our colleagues Hugh Cairns, John Clegg, Paul Curnow, Kristina Everett, Serena Fredrick, Duane Hamacher, Ray Johnston, John Morieson, Adele Pring, Clive Ruggles, and especially Ian MacLean, for their inspiration, help, and collaboration. Our warm thanks go to Bruce and Janette Mcnaughton for their hospitality and friendship in Nhulunbuy. We also thank Barnaby and Tamasin Norris for help with some of the surveys and photography used in this book, and give a special thanks to Barnaby for injecting his expertise and time into many of the images shown on this site, and especially his magnificent “Emu in the Sky” Image.

We also thank Aboriginal representatives and other organisations who help maintain and protect the national treasures represented here, including:

  • Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS)
  • Buku Larrnggay Mulka Centre (Yirrkala, NT)
  • Injaluk Arts & Crafts Centre, Gunbalanya (formerly Oenpelli, NT)
  • Richard and Cynthia Hunter, of the Nganguraku People (SA)
  • National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW)
  • Northern Land Council (NT)
  • State Library of NSW and the Mitchell Library
  • Sydney Metropolitan Land Council
  • Yirrkala Dhanbul Community Association (Yirrkala, NT)

We are grateful to those authors who have given us permission to reproduce their works in the "reference library" section.


All material and images on this website are protected by copyright
(© Ray & Cilla Norris 2009) except where otherwise stated.

Feel free to link to anything on this site, but please email us on if you wish to reproduce or copy anything. High-resolution professional-quality images are also available for most of the images shown on this site.

Students wishing to use material on this site for projects or assignments are welcome to do so, and need not ask us for permission, provided that (a) the copyright notice is not removed from images, and (b) the material is not published or made publically available without our consent.

A Note on Copyright of other documents included on this web site.

On this web site, we have included a number of works by other authors. In each case, they are there because one of the following conditions apply:

  • The material is out of copyright (explained below) in which case you can freely copy or use it.

  • The work has been placed into the public domain, or is subject to a copyright or copyleft notice giving permission for such use, in which case you can use it provided you check the conditions attached to it.

  • We have been granted permission by the author or copyright holder to reproduce it here. In this case you need to check with that person if you want to copy or reproduce it elsewhere.

  • We have given a link to a web site where it has already been published.

Documents which are out of copyright may be freely copied, or, in this context, scanned into a file and put onto the web. For a full explanation of Copyright, see For the purposes of this web site, we have assumed that work is out of copyright if either (a) it was published before 1923, or (b) the author has been dead for 70 years.


All material on this page © Ray Norris 2007 except where otherwise indicated.